Rosell-García, T., et al. Differential cleavage of lysyl oxidase by the metalloproteinases BMP1 and ADAMTS2/14 regulates collagen binding through a tyrosine sulfate domain, Journal of Biological Chemistry. Volume 294, Number 29, 11087-11100
Collagens are the main structural component of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and provide biomechanical properties to connective tissues. A critical step in collagen fibril formation is the proteolytic removal of N- and C-terminal propeptides from procollagens by metalloproteinases of the ADAMTS (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) and BMP1 (bone morphogenetic protein 1)/Tolloid-like families, respectively. BMP1 also cleaves and activates the lysyl oxidase (LOX) precursor, the enzyme catalyzing the initial step in the formation of covalent collagen cross-links, an essential process for fibril stabilization. In this study, using murine skin fibroblasts and HEK293 cells, along with immunoprecipitation, LOX enzymatic activity, solid-phase binding assays and proteomics analyses, we report that the LOX precursor is proteolytically processed by the procollagen N-proteinases ADAMTS2 and ADAMTS14 between Asp-218 and Tyr-219, 50 amino acids downstream of the BMP1 cleavage site. We noted that the LOX sequence between the BMP1 and ADAMTS processing sites contains several conserved tyrosine residues, of which some are post-translationally modified by tyrosine O-sulfation and contribute to binding to collagen. Taken together, these findings unravel an additional level of regulation in the formation of collagen fibrils. They point to a mechanism that controls the binding of LOX to collagen and is based on differential BMP1- and ADAMTS2/14-mediated cleavage of a tyrosine-sulfated domain.