Clubroot disease is one of the major diseases affecting Brassica crops, especially Chinese cabbage (Brassica rapa L. ssp. pekinensis), which is known to be highly susceptible to the disease. In this study, the obligate biotrophic protist Plasmodiophora brassicae Woronin was used to infect the roots of Chinese cabbage seedlings. The disease symptoms were noticeable at 28 and 35 days after inoculation (DAI) in the susceptible (CM) line. Using isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) analysis, a total of 5,003 proteins of differential abundance were identified in the resistant/susceptible lines, which could be quantitated by dipeptide or polypeptide segments. Gene ontology (GO) analysis indicated that the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) between the susceptible (CM) and resistant (CCR) lines were associated with the glutathione transferase activity pathway, which could catalyze the combination of glutathione and other electrophilic compounds to protect plants from disease. In addition, the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis revealed that the DEPs may be significantly enriched cytokinin signaling or arginine biosynthesis pathways, both of which are responses to stimuli and are plant defense reactions. The cytokinins may facilitate cell division in the shoot, resulting in the hypertrophy and formation of galls and the presentation of typical clubroot symptoms. In this study, the proteomic results provide a new perspective for creating germplasm resistance to P. brassicae, as well as a genetic basis for breeding to improve Chinese cabbage.