Mouse kidney parvovirus (MKPV) is a member of the provisional Chapparvovirus genus that causes renal disease in immune-compromised mice, with a disease course reminiscent of polyomavirus-associated nephropathy in immune-suppressed kidney transplant patients. Here we map four MKPV transcripts, created by alternative splicing, to a common transcription initiation region, and use mass spectrometry to identify “p10” and “p15” as novel chapparvovirus accessory proteins produced in MKPV-infected kidneys. p15 and a splicing-dependent putative accessory protein NS2 are conserved in all near-complete tetrapod chapparvovirus genomes currently available (from mammals, birds and a reptile). In contrast, p10 may be encoded only by viruses with >60% amino acid identity to MKPV. We show that MKPV is kidney-tropic and that the bat chapparvovirus DrPV-1 and a non-human primate chapparvovirus, CKPV, are also found in the kidneys of their hosts. We propose, therefore, that chapparvoviruses with >60% VP1 amino acid identity to MKPV be classified into a genus dubbed Nephroparvovirus, which is consistent with nomenclature for the genus Erythroparvovirus.