Lardinois, O.M., et al. Immunoglobulins G from patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis are atypically glycosylated in both the Fc and Fab regions and the relation to disease activity. PLOS One. 14(2) e0213215. 28/2/2019.
BACKGROUND: Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibodies (ANCA) directed against myeloperoxidase (MPO) and proteinase 3 (PR3) are pathogenic in ANCA-associated vasculitis (AAV). The respective role of IgG Fc and Fab glycosylation in mediating ANCA pathogenicity is incompletely understood. Herein we investigate in detail the changes in Fc and Fab glycosylation in MPO-ANCA and Pr3-ANCA and examine the association of glycosylation aberrancies with disease activity.
METHODOLOGY: Total IgG was isolated from serum or plasma of a cohort of 30 patients with AAV (14 MPO-ANCA; 16 PR3-ANCA), and 19 healthy control subjects. Anti-MPO specific IgG was affinity-purified from plasma of an additional cohort of 18 MPO-ANCA patients undergoing plasmapheresis. We used lectin binding assays, liquid chromatography, and mass spectrometry-based methods to analyze Fc and Fab glycosylation, the degree of sialylation of Fc and Fab fragments and to determine the exact localization of N-glycans on Fc and Fab fragments.
PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: IgG1 Fc glycosylation of total IgG was significantly reduced in patients with active AAV compared to controls. Clinical remission was associated with complete glycan normalization for PR3-ANCA patients but not for MPO-ANCA patients. Fc-glycosylation of anti-MPO specific IgG was similar to total IgG purified from plasma. A major fraction of anti-MPO specific IgG harbor extensive glycosylation within the variable domain on the Fab portion.
CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Significant differences exist between MPO and PR3-ANCA regarding the changes in amounts and types of glycans on Fc fragment and the association with disease activity. These differences may contribute to significant clinical difference in the disease course observed between the two diseases.