Niu, Liman, et al. “A Micropeptide Encoded by LncRNA MIR155HG Suppresses Autoimmune Inflammation via Modulating Antigen Presentation.” Science Advances, vol. 6, no. 21, 2020, doi:10.1126/sciadv.aaz2059.
Many annotated long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) harbor predicted short open reading frames (sORFs), but the coding capacities of these sORFs and the functions of the resulting micropeptides remain elusive. Here, we report that human lncRNA MIR155HG encodes a 17–amino acid micropeptide, which we termed miPEP155 (P155). MIR155HG is highly expressed by inflamed antigen-presenting cells, leading to the discovery that P155 interacts with the adenosine 5′-triphosphate binding domain of heat shock cognate protein 70 (HSC70), a chaperone required for antigen trafficking and presentation in dendritic cells (DCs). P155 modulates major histocompatibility complex class II–mediated antigen presentation and T cell priming by disrupting the HSC70-HSP90 machinery. Exogenously injected P155 improves two classical mouse models of DC-driven auto inflammation. Collectively, we demonstrate the endogenous existence of a micropeptide encoded by a transcript annotated as “non-protein coding” and characterize a micropeptide as a regulator of antigen presentation and a suppressor of inflammatory diseases.