Ningrum, Sugiyati, Aji Sutrisno, and Jue-Liang Hsu. “An exploration of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory peptides derived from gastrointestinal protease hydrolysate of milk using a modified bioassay-guided fractionation approach coupled with in silico analysis.” Journal of Dairy Science 105.3 (2022): 1913-1928. https://doi.org/10.3168/jds.2021-21112
An improved bioassay-guided fractionation was performed to effectively screen angiotensin-I converting enzyme inhibitory (ACEI) peptides from milk protein hydrolysate. The aqueous normal phase liquid chromatography, namely hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC), was used as a format of solid-phase extraction (SPE) short column for the first fractionation, then the HILIC-SPE fraction with the best ACEI activity (IC50 = 61.75 ± 5.74 µg/mL; IC50 = half-maximal inhibitory concentration) was obtained when eluted by 95% acetonitrile + 0.1% formic acid (fraction F1). The best HILIC-SPE fraction was further fractionated using reversed-phase (RP)-SPE short column. The best RP-SPE fraction was obtained when eluted by 20% acetonitrile + 0.1% formic acid (fraction P3) with an ACEI activity of IC50 36.22 ± 1.18 µg/mL. After the 2-step fractionation, the IC50 value of fraction P3 significantly decreased by 8.92-fold when compared with the crude hydrolysate. Several peptides were identified from fraction P3 using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The in silico analysis of these identified sequences based on the BIOPEP database predicted that HLPLPLL (HL-7) was the most active peptide against angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). The HL-7 derived from β-casein showed a potent ACEI activity (IC50 value is 16.87 ± 0.3 µM). The contents of HL-7 in the gastrointestinal protease hydrolysate and RP-SPE fraction originated from 1 mg of milk proteins were quantified using a multiple reaction monitoring mode upon liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis to give 19.86 ± 1.14 pg and 14,545.8 ± 572.9 pg, respectively. Besides, the kinetic study indicated that HL-7 was a competitive inhibitor and the result was rationalized using the docking simulation. The study demonstrated an efficient screening of ACEI peptides from commercially available milk powders using a simple SPE process instead of a sophisticated instrument such as HPLC. Moreover, the potent ACEI peptide HL-7 uncovered by this method could be a natural ACE inhibitor.