Characterisation of Endogenous Peptides Present in Virgin Olive Oil

Lopez-Huertas, Eduardo, and Juan M. Alcaide-Hidalgo. “Characterisation of Endogenous Peptides Present in Virgin Olive Oil.” International Journal of Molecular Sciences 23.3 (2022): 1712.


The low molecular weight peptide composition of virgin olive oil (VOO) is mostly unknown. We aimed to investigate the composition of the endogenous peptides present in VOO, the protein sources from which those peptides originate and their biological activities. A water-soluble extract containing peptides was obtained from VOO. The peptides were separated by size-exclusion using fast protein liquid chromatography, and the low molecular weight fraction (1600–700 kDa) was analysed by nanoscale liquid chromatography Orbitrap coupled with tandem mass spectrometry and de novo sequencing. Nineteen new peptides were identified by Peaks database algorithm, using the available Olea europaea (cv. Farga) genome database. Eight new peptides were also identified by Peaks de novo sequencing. The protein sources of the peptides detected in the database by Peaks DB were identified by BLAST-P search. Seed storage proteins were among the most frequent sources of VOO peptides. BIOPEP software was used to predict the biological activities of peptides and to simulate (in silico) the proteolytic activity of digestive enzymes on the detected peptide sequences. A selection of synthetic peptides was obtained for investigation of their bioactivities. Peptides VCGEAFGKA, NALLCSNS, CPANGFY, CCYSVY and DCHYFL possessed strong ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant activities in vitro. Antioxidant peptides could play a role in VOO quality.