Franca-Oliveira, Giselle, et al. “Contribution of Proteins and Peptides to the Impact of a Soy Protein Isolate on Oxidative Stress and Inflammation-Associated Biomarkers in an Innate Immune Cell Model.” Plants 12.10 (2023): 2011. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants12102011
The innate and adaptative immune systems are involved in the regulation of inflammatory and oxidative processes and mediators such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). The exacerbated action of these players results in an oxidative stress status and chronic inflammation, which is responsible for the development of non-communicable diseases (NCDs). By modulating these mediators, bioactive compounds in food can exert a key role in the prevention of several NCDs. Among these compounds, soybean proteins and peptides such as lunasin have been considered to be among the most promising. The aim of this study was to obtain and characterize a soluble protein-enriched extract from a commercial soybean protein isolate and fractionate it into different fractions through ultrafiltration. Their antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties were then evaluated using biochemical and cell models. A total of 535 proteins (from 282 protein groups) were identified in the extract, in which the presence of the peptide lunasin was confirmed. The enrichment of this peptide was achieved in the 3–10 kDa fraction. The protective effects against the oxidative stress induced by LPS in the macrophage model could have been mediated by the radical scavenging capacity of the peptides present in the soybean samples. Under basal conditions, the extract and its ultrafiltered fractions activated macrophages and induced the release of NO. However, under challenged conditions, the whole extract potentiated the NO-stimulating effects of LPS, whereas the fraction containing 3–10 kDa peptides, including lunasin, counteracted the LPS-induced NO increase. Our findings suggest a promising role of soybean protein as an ingredient for functional foods and nutraceuticals aimed at promoting health and preventing oxidative stress and/or immune-alteration-associated diseases.