Zong, Yu, et al. “DeepFLR facilitates false localization rate control in phosphoproteomics.” Nature Communications 14.1 (2023): 2269. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-023-38035-1
Protein phosphorylation is a post-translational modification crucial for many cellular processes and protein functions. Accurate identification and quantification of protein phosphosites at the proteome-wide level are challenging, not least because efficient tools for protein phosphosite false localization rate (FLR) control are lacking. Here, we propose DeepFLR, a deep learning-based framework for controlling the FLR in phosphoproteomics. DeepFLR includes a phosphopeptide tandem mass spectrum (MS/MS) prediction module based on deep learning and an FLR assessment module based on a target-decoy approach. DeepFLR improves the accuracy of phosphopeptide MS/MS prediction compared to existing tools. Furthermore, DeepFLR estimates FLR accurately for both synthetic and biological datasets, and localizes more phosphosites than probability-based methods. DeepFLR is compatible with data from different organisms, instruments types, and both data-dependent and data-independent acquisition approaches, thus enabling FLR estimation for a broad range of phosphoproteomics experiments.