Dibutyl phthalate contamination accelerates the uptake and metabolism of sugars by microbes in black soil


Dibutyl phthalate (DBP) is widely used as plasticizer and has been detected in the environment, posing a threat to animal health. However, the effects of DBP on agricultural microbiomes are not known. In this study, DBP levels in black soil were evaluated, and the impact of DBP contamination on the uptake and metabolism of sugars in microbes was assessed by glucose absorption tests, metaproteomics, metabolomics, enzyme activity assays and computational simulation analysis. The results indicated that DBP contamination accelerated glucose consumption and upregulates the expression of porins and periplasmic monosaccharide ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter solute-binding proteins (SBPs). DBP and its metabolic intermediates (carboxymuconate and butanol) may form a stable complex with sugar transporters and enhance the rigidity and stability of these proteins. Sugar metabolism resulting in the generation of ATP and reducing agent (NADPH), as well as the expression of some key enzymes (dehydrogenases) were also upregulated by DBP treatment. Moreover, a diverse bacterial community appears to utilize sugar, suggesting that there are widespread effects of DBP contamination on soil microbial ecosystems. The results of this study provide a theoretical basis for investigating the toxicological effects of DBP on microbes in black soil.