Liu, Wei, et al. “Evaluating the Properties of Ginger Protease-Degraded Collagen Hydrolysate and Identifying the Cleavage Site of Ginger Protease by Using an Integrated Strategy and LC-MS Technology.” Molecules 27.15 (2022): 5001. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules27155001
(1) Methods: An integrated strategy, including in vitro study (degree of hydrolysis (DH) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity) and in vivo study (absorption after oral administration in rats), was developed to evaluate the properties of the fish skin gelatin hydrolysates prepared using different proteases (pepsin, alkaline protease, bromelain, and ginger protease). Meanwhile, in order to identify the hydrolysis site of ginger protease, the peptides in the ginger protease-degraded collagen hydrolysate (GDCH) were comprehensively characterized by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS) method. (2) Results: The GDCH exhibited the highest DH (20.37%) and DPPH radical scavenging activity (77.73%), and in vivo experiments showed that the GDCH was more efficiently absorbed by the gastrointestinal tract. Further oral administration experiments revealed that GDCH was not entirely degraded to free amino acids and can be partially absorbed as dipeptides and tripeptides in intact forms, including Pro-Hyp, Gly-Pro-Hyp, and X-Hyp-Gly tripeptides. LC-MS results determined the unique substrate specificity of ginger protease recognizing Pro and Hyp at the P2 position based on the amino acids at the P2 position from the three types of tripeptides (Gly-Pro-Y, X-Hyp-Gly, and Z-Pro-Gly) and 136 identified peptides (>4 amino acids). Interestingly, it suggested that ginger protease can also recognize Ala in the P2 position. (3) Conclusions: This study comprehensively evaluated the properties of GDCH by combining in vitro and in vivo strategies, and is the first to identify the cleavage site of ginger protease by LC-MS technique. It provides support for the follow-up study on the commercial applications of ginger protease and bioactivities of the hydrolysate produced by ginger protease.