Mason, Emily, et al. “Health Promoting Bioactive Properties of Novel Hairless Canary Seed Flour after In Vitro Gastrointestinal Digestion.” Foods, vol. 9, no. 7, 2020, p. 932., doi:10.3390/foods9070932.
The bioactive properties and health-promoting effects of two novel yellow (C09052, C05041) and two brown (Calvi, Bastia) hairless canary seed (Phalaris canariensis L.) cultivars were investigated in comparison to two common cereal grains (wheat and oat). The cereal flours were digested using the standardized INFOGEST in vitro human gastrointestinal digestion model. The three-kilo dalton molecular weight cutoff (3 kDa MWCO) permeate of the generated digestates was assessed in vitro for their antioxidant, chelating, antihypertensive and antidiabetic activities. The results showed no significant differences in studied bioactivities between yellow and brown canary seed cultivars, except for antioxidant activity by the DPPH and chelating Fe2+ assays, where brown cultivars had higher activities. Canary seeds had superior or equivalent antioxidant activity than those from oat and wheat. The anti-hypertensive activity (Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition) in yellow canary seed cultivars was significantly higher than that of oat and wheat, particularly for C09052 and Calvi varieties. Peptides exhibiting the highest antihypertensive activity from the permeate of the C09052 canary seed variety were further fractionated and identified by mass spectrometry. Forty-six peptides were identified belonging to 18 proteins from the Pooideae subfamily. Fourteen of the parent proteins were homologous to barley proteins. Peptides were analyzed in silico to determine potential bioactivity based on their amino acid composition. All 46 peptides had potential anti-hypertensive and anti-diabetic activities and 20 had potential antioxidant activity, thereby validating the in vitro assay data. Canary seed peptides also exhibited potential antiamnestic, antithrombotic, immunostimulating, opioid and neuro-activity, demonstrating important potential for health promoting effects, particularly against cardiovascular disease.