Identification and characterization of a tumor necrosis factor receptor like protein encoded by Cyprinid Herpesvirus 2

Lu, Jian-Fei, et al. “Identification and Characterization of a Tumor Necrosis Factor Receptor like Protein Encoded by Cyprinid Herpesvirus 2.” Developmental & Comparative Immunology, Elsevier BV, Mar. 2021, p. 103930. Crossref, doi:10.1016/j.dci.2020.103930.


Virus-encoded tumor necrosis factor receptors (vTNFRs) facilitate viral escape from the host immune response during viral propagation. Cyprinid Herpesvirus-2 (CyHV-2) is a double-stranded DNA virus of alloherpesviridae family that causes great economic losses in the aquaculture industry. The present study identified and characterized a novel TNFR homolog termed ORF4 in CyHV-2. ORF4 was identified as a secreted protein and a homolog of herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM). ORF4 localized to the cytoplasm in infected GiCF cells. ORF4 overexpression enhanced viral propagation, while downregulation of ORF4 via siRNA decreased viral propagation. ORF4 overexpression promoted GiCF proliferation, and its downregulation suppressed CyHV-2-induced apoptosis. GST-pulldown and LC-MS/MS assays identified 44 conditional binding proteins that interact with ORF4 protein, while the GST pulldown test did not support the idea that ORF4 interact with histone H3.3. Taken together, our results contribute to our understanding of the vTNFR function in alloherpesviridae pathogenesis and host immune regulation.