Funayama, S., et al. Identification and Function of GnRH-like Peptide in the Pacific Abalone, Haliotis discus hannai. 36(4) 339-347
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is an important regulator of reproductive function in various vertebrates and invertebrates. In the present study, we have identified the GnRH-like peptide cDNA and peptide from the cerebral ganglion (CG) of the Pacific abalone, Haliotis discus hannai. Pacific abalone GnRH-like peptide (hdhGnRH-like peptide) cDNA encodes precursor, which possesses the typical organization of the known mollusk GnRH-like peptide precursors, including a hydrophobic signal peptide, GnRH-like peptide, and a cleavage site followed by a GAP-like peptide region. Three hdhGnRH-like peptides, pQNYHFSNGWHAamide (hdhGnRH-11amide), pQNYHFSNGWHA (hdhGnRH-11OH), and pQNYHFSNGWHAG (hdhGnRH-12OH), were determined from the acid/acetone extract of the CG by mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. The hdhGnRH-like peptide mRNA expression was detected not only in the CG but also in gonads, and hdhGnRH-11amide was also detected in the extract of gonads. The mRNA expression of hdhGnRH-like peptide in the CG was lower in spawned males than in non-spawned animals, while no change in hdhGnRH-like peptide mRNA expression was shown in both ovulated and non-ovulated abalone. The hdhGnRH-11amide induces spawning and ovulation of both mature males and females in a concentration-dependent fashion following intramuscular injection. These results indicate that three hdhGnRH-like peptides are yielded from a single hdhGnRH-like peptide precursor, and that at least hdhGnRH-11amide is involved in the control of reproduction of the Pacific abalone.