Bougatef, Hajer, et al. “Identification of ACE I-Inhibitory Peptides Released by the Hydrolysis of Tub Gurnard (Chelidonichthys lucerna) Skin Proteins and the Impact of Their In Silico Gastrointestinal Digestion.” Marine Drugs 21.2 (2023): 131. https://doi.org/10.3390/md21020131
Tub gurnard is a highly abundant fishery species caught as a discard in the Mediterranean Sea. This work proposes its valorisation through the release of potential antihypertensive peptides and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) through the controlled hydrolysis of tub gurnard skin proteins. Four proteases (Esperase, Alcalase, Trypsin and Pronase E) were used to obtain potent angiotensin converting enzyme I (ACE)-inhibitory hydrolysates. Peptides and GAGs were separated and evaluated for their antihypertensive potential by fluorometry. The peptide-rich fractions derived from the Esperase and Alcalase hydrolysates showed very low IC50 values (47 and 68 μg/mL, respectively). Only the GAGs from the Trypsin and Esperase hydrolysates were relevant ACE inhibitors (63 and 52% at 1 mg/mL, respectively). The peptide composition of the most potent ACE-inhibitory fractions derived from the Esperase and Alcalase hydrolysates (IC50 values of 33 and 29 μg/mL, respectively) was analysed by RP-LC-ESI-MS/MS. The analysis suggests that the ACE-inhibitory activity is related to the peptide hydrophobicity, as well as to the presence of specific residues at any of the last four C-terminal positions. The in silico gastrointestinal digestion of these fractions yielded small peptides with antihypertensive potential.