Haque, Sheikh Tanzina, et al. “Mitigating off-target distribution and enhancing cytotoxicity in breast cancer cells with alpha-ketoglutaric acid-modified Fe/Mg-CA nanoparticles.” Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation 52.3 (2022): 367-386. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40005-022-00571-1
In this work, pH-sensitive alpha-ketoglutaric acid-modified Fe/Mg-carbonate apatite (α-KAM-Fe/Mg-CA) NPs were introduced and found to be capable of promoting the selective delivery of cancer-killing drug doxorubicin (DOX) in breast cancer cells, while simultaneously mitigating DOX toxicity on normal cells.
As part of the characterization and evaluation of α-KAM-Fe/Mg-CA NPs to target breast cancer cells, a series of assessments were performed, which included size measurements, morphological analysis, FTIR, cytotoxicity assessment, hemolysis, drug binding, cellular uptake, and pH-responsive drug release tests. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to conduct the protein corona analysis of α-KAM-Fe/Mg-CA using 10% FBS (fetal bovine serum) and mice plasma. Furthermore, to investigate the distribution of DOX-loaded α-KAM-Fe/Mg-CA NPs in major tissues and the tumor, a biodistribution investigation was conducted in mammary tumor-induced Balb/c mouse models 24 h after the intravenous administration of DOX-loaded α-KAM-Fe/Mg-CA NPs.
The in vitro pH-dependent release of DOX over time demonstrated that α-KAM-Fe/Mg-CA NPs were pH-responsive and degraded rapidly at acidic pH levels. When compared to free DOX, the DOX-loaded α-KAM-Fe/Mg-CA NPs demonstrated a potent antiproliferative effect on breast cancer cells. Confocal microscopy confirmed the effective internalization of DOX-loaded α-KAM-Fe/Mg-CA NPs in breast cancer cells. The protein corona analysis revealed an affinity for dysopsonins (serum albumin, apolipoproteins) and transport proteins that may assist in extending their blood circulation period. Furthermore, biodistribution data of DOX-loaded α-KAM-Fe/Mg-CA NPs in the mammary tumor-induced Balb/c mouse model indicated extended circulation in the bloodstream, reduced non-target distribution in major tissues, and increased drug accumulation in the tumor.
The results obtained suggest that α-KAM-Fe/Mg-CA NPs may emerge as a prospective candidate for delivering therapeutic cargos to treat malignant mammary tumors.