Mode of action of antifouling compound albofungin in inhibiting barnacle larval settlement

She, Weiyi, et al. “Mode of action of antifouling compound albofungin in inhibiting barnacle settlement.” iScience (2023).


Marine biofouling causes huge economic losses to the marine industry every year. Albofungin is a potential antifoulant showing strong anti-macrofouling activities against larval settlement of major fouling organisms. In the present study, directed RNA-seq and proteomic analyses were used to investigate changes in the transcriptome and proteome of a major fouling barnacle Amphibalanus amphitrite cyprids in response to albofungin treatment. Results showed that albofungin treatment remarkably upregulated the metabolism of xenobiotics by the cytochrome P450 pathway to discharge the compound and downregulated energy metabolic processes. Intriguingly, immunostaining and whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH) revealed the spatial expression patterns of selected differentially expressed genes (glutathione S-transferase [GST], nitric oxide synthase [NOS], and calmodulin [CaM]) distributed in the thorax and antennule of A. amphitrite. Our study provides new insights into the mechanism of albofungin in interrupting the larval settlement of A. amphitrite and suggests its potential application as an antifouling agent in marine environments.