Wang, Xuefeng, et al. “Protein Function Analysis of Germinated Moringa Oleifera Seeds, and Purification and Characterization of Their Milk-Clotting Peptidase.” International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, Elsevier BV, Feb. 2021, pp. 539–49. Crossref, doi:10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2021.01.026.
The present study aimed to investigate the biological functions of germinated M. oleifera seed proteins and to identify the identity of milk-clotting proteases. A total of 963 proteins were identified, and those with molecular weights between 10 and 30 kDa were most abundant. The identified proteins were mainly involved in energy-associated catalytic activity and metabolic processes, and carbohydrate and protein metabolisms. The numbers of proteins associated with the hydrolytic and catalytic activities were higher than the matured dry M. oleifera seeds reported previously. Of the identified proteins, proteases were mainly involved in the milk-clotting activity. Especially, a cysteine peptidase with a molecular mass of 17.727 kDa exhibiting hydrolase and peptidase activities was purified and identified. The identified cysteine peptidase was hydrophilic, and its secondary structure consisted of 27.60% alpha helix, 9.20% beta fold, and 63.20% irregular curl; its tertiary structure was also constructed using M. oleifera seed 2S protein as the protein template. The optimal pH and temperature of the purified protease were pH 4.0 and 60 °C, respectively. The protease had high acidic stability and good thermostability, thus could potentially be applied in the dairy industry.