Santos, Wellington da Silva, et al. “Proteomic analysis reveals rattlesnake venom modulation of proteins associated with cardiac tissue damage in mouse hearts.” Journal of Proteomics 258 (2022): 104530. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jprot.2022.104530
Snake envenomation is a common but neglected disease that affects millions of people around the world annually. Among venomous snake species in Brazil, the tropical rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) accounts for the highest number of fatal envenomations and is responsible for the second highest number of bites. Snake venoms are complex secretions which, upon injection, trigger diverse physiological effects that can cause significant injury or death. The components of C. d. terrificus venom exhibit neurotoxic, myotoxic, hemotoxic, nephrotoxic, and cardiotoxic properties which present clinically as alteration of central nervous system function, motor paralysis, seizures, eyelid ptosis, ophthalmoplesia, blurred vision, coagulation disorders, rhabdomyolysis, myoglobinuria, and cardiorespiratory arrest. In this study, we focused on proteomic characterization of the cardiotoxic effects of C. d. terrificus venom in mouse models. We injected venom at half the lethal dose (LD50) into the gastrocnemius muscle. Mouse hearts were removed at set time points after venom injection (1 h, 6 h, 12 h, or 24 h) and subjected to trypsin digestion prior to high-resolution mass spectrometry. We analyzed the proteomic profiles of >1300 proteins and observed that several proteins showed noteworthy changes in their quantitative profiles, likely reflecting the toxic activity of venom components. Among the affected proteins were several associated with cellular deregulation and tissue damage. Changes in heart protein abundance offer insights into how they may work synergistically upon envenomation.