VanHecke, G., et al. Proteomic Identification of Protein Glutathionylation in Cardiomyocytes. 18(4) 1806-1818
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are important signaling molecules, but their overproduction is associated with many cardiovascular diseases, including cardiomyopathy. ROS induce various oxidative modifications, among which glutathionylation is one of the significant protein oxidations that occur under oxidative stress. Despite previous efforts, direct and site-specific identification of glutathionylated proteins in cardiomyocytes has been limited. In this report, we used a clickable glutathione approach in a HL-1 mouse cardiomyocyte cell line under exposure to hydrogen peroxide, finding 1763 glutathionylated peptides with specific Cys modification sites, which include many muscle-specific proteins. Bioinformatic and cluster analyses found 125 glutathionylated proteins, whose mutations or dysfunctions are associated with cardiomyopathy, many of which include sarcomeric structural and contractile proteins, chaperone, and other signaling or regulatory proteins. We further provide functional implication of glutathionylation for several identified proteins, including CSRP3/MLP and complex I, II, and III, by analyzing glutathionylated sites in their structures. Our report establishes a chemoselective method for direct identification of glutathionylated proteins and provides potential target proteins whose glutathionylation may contribute to muscle diseases.