Li, Huawei, et al. “Proteomic Investigation Reveals Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 5A Involvement in Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Infection in vitro.” Frontiers in Veterinary Science 9 (2022). https://doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2022.861137
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV), one of the most serious animal pathogens in the world, has caused enormous global swine industry losses. An in-depth investigation of the PRRSV-host interaction would be beneficial for preventing and controlling PRRSV infections and transmission. In this study, we performed label-free quantitative proteomic assays to investigate proteome dynamics of porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs) during infection with highly pathogenic PRRSV (HP-PRRSV) strain HN07-1. Analysis of the results led to identification of 269 significantly differentially expressed host cellular proteins, of which levels of proteins belonging to the eukaryotic translation initiation factor (eIF) family were found to be decreased in abundance in HP-PRRSV-infected PAMs. Furthermore, knockdown of eIF5A expression was demonstrated to markedly suppress HP-PRRSV propagation, as reflected by reduced progeny virus titers in vitro. These results highlight the importance of eIF5A in PRRSV infection, while also demonstrating that PAMs down-regulate eIF5A expression as a host cell antiviral strategy. Results of the current study deepen our understanding of PRRSV pathogenesis and provide novel insights to guide development of effective strategies to combat the virus.