Lin, Yue, et al. “Selenium‐enriched peptides isolated from Cardamine violifolia are potent in suppressing proliferation and enhancing apoptosis of HepG2 cells.” Journal of Food Science 87.7 (2022): 3235-3247. https://doi.org/10.1111/1750-3841.16199
Selenium (Se)-enriched peptides were isolated from Cardamine violifolia by enzymatic hydrolysis and ultrafiltration. S3 (molecular weight [MW] distribution of 3–5 kDa) exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on HepG2 cells and was thus screened using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay; it was found to have a high organic Se content. Its amino acid sequence was determined using HPLC-MS/MS. We then examined its ability to inhibit tumor cell proliferation and found that it arrested tumor cells in the S phase; moreover, it could induce cancer cell apoptosis. Following S3 treatment, we observed a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and an increase in cell calcium content. Upon S3 treatment at 60 µg/ml, the relative activities of caspase-3 and caspase-9 increased by 1.48 times and 2.17 times, and the contents of PI3K and AKT decreased from 2.05 ng/L and 1.95 ng/L to 0.71 ng/L and 0.50 ng/L, respectively, when compared with the control group. Transcriptomic analysis revealed significant changes in the PI3K–AKT pathway following S3 treatment. This study thus established a foundation for additional development of Se-enriched peptides from C. violifolia as a functional food.