Wang, Yanping, et al. “Suppression of RIP1 activity via S415 dephosphorylation ameliorates obesity‐related hepatic insulin resistance.” Obesity 30.3 (2022): 680-693. https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.23361
Receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 1 (RIP1) is a well-documented key regulator of TNFα-mediated inflammation, apoptosis, and necroptosis, which contribute to the development of obesity-related metabolic diseases such as nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. However, the mechanism regarding how RIP1 influences obesity-related insulin resistance remains elusive.
Primary hepatocytes with necrostatin 1 treatment or RIP1 expression were exposed to palmitic acid (PA), prior to the examination of cellular insulin signaling. Phosphorylation sites of RIP1 were detected by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, and RIP1 variants with mutated phosphorylation sites were overexpressed in hepatocytes to identify the specific residue that influenced the RIP1-mediated insulin resistance. Adenovirus expressing RIP1 (S415A) mutant were administered into diet-induced obese mice to assess the effects on insulin sensitivity.
This study uncovered an aberrant increase in RIP1 activity during the development of obesity-induced insulin resistance. Inhibition of RIP1 activity with necrostatin 1 ameliorated PA- or high-fat diet-caused hepatic insulin resistance. With liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry analysis and mutagenesis screening, S415, a novel phosphorylation site of RIP1, was identified to be responsible for RIP1-mediated insulin resistance. Loss-of-function mutation of S415 efficiently blunted RIP1-evoked insulin resistance in PA-treated hepatocytes or diet-induced obese mice.
These findings highlight the diabetogenic role of RIP1 S415 and propose RIP1 as a promising therapeutic target for type 2 diabetes.