The effect of calcium–magnesium mixtures in sol–gel coatings on bone tissue regeneration

Cerqueira, Andreia, et al. “The effect of calcium–magnesium mixtures in sol–gel coatings on bone tissue regeneration.” Biomaterials Science 10.19 (2022): 5634-5647.


Calcium and magnesium are two elements essential for bone structure and metabolism. However, their synergistic or competitive effects on bone regeneration are often overlooked during biomaterial development. We examined the interactions between Ca and Mg in sol–gel coatings doped with mixtures of CaCl2 (0.5%) and MgCl2 (0.5, 1, and 1.5%). After physicochemical characterisation, the materials were incubated in vitro with MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells and RAW264.7 macrophages, and the protein adsorption was analysed using nLC-MS/MS. The incorporation of the ions did not lead to the formation of crystalline structures and did not affect the sol–gel network cross-linking. The release of the ions did not cause cytotoxic effects at any tested concentration. The proteomic analysis showed that adding the Ca and Mg ions elevated the adsorption of proteins associated with inflammatory response regulation (e.g., ALBU, CLUS, HPT, HPTR, A1AG1 and A1AG2) but decreased the adsorption of immunoglobulins. The CaMg coatings had reduced affinity to proteins associated with coagulation (e.g., FA9, FA10, FA11, FA12) but increased the adsorption of proteins involved in cell adhesion (DSG1, DESP, FBLN1, ZA2G). In vitro assays revealed that the cellular response was affected by changing the concentration of Mg. Moreover, our results show that these differences reflect the changes in the concentrations of both ions in the mix but are not a simple additive effect.