Novak, Andreja, et al. “Transcriptome and proteome analysis of innate immune responses to inactivated Leptospira and bivalent Leptospira vaccines in canine 030-D cells.” Scientific Reports 12.1 (2022): 13418. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-022-16457-z
Mandatory potency testing of Leptospira vaccine batches relies partially on in vivo procedures, requiring large numbers of laboratory animals. Cell-based assays could replace in vivo tests for vaccine quality control if biomarkers indicative of Leptospira vaccine potency are identified. We investigated innate immune responsiveness induced by inactivated L. interrogans serogroups Canicola and Icterohaemorrhagiae, and two bivalent, non-adjuvanted canine Leptospira vaccines containing the same serogroups. First, the transcriptome and proteome analysis of a canine monocyte/macrophage 030-D cell line stimulated with Leptospira strains, and vaccine B revealed more than 900 DEGs and 23 DEPs in common to these three stimuli. Second, comparison of responses induced by vaccine B and vaccine D revealed a large overlap in DEGs and DEPs as well, suggesting potential to identify biomarkers indicative of Leptospira vaccine quality. Because not many common DEPs were identified, we selected seven molecules from the identified DEGs, associated with pathways related to innate immunity, of which CXCL-10, IL-1β, SAA, and complement C3 showed increased secretion upon stimulation with both Leptospira vaccines. These molecules could be interesting targets for development of biomarker-based assays for Leptospira vaccine quality control in the future. Additionally, this study contributes to the understanding of the mechanisms by which Leptospira vaccines induce innate immune responses in the dog.