Tuning DO:DM Ratios Modulates MHC Class II Immunopeptidomes

Olsson, Niclas, et al. “Tuning DO: DM ratios modulates MHC class II immunopeptidomes.” Molecular & Cellular Proteomics 21.3 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mcpro.2022.100204


Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) antigen presentation underlies a wide range of immune responses in health and disease. However, how MHC-II antigen presentation is regulated by the peptide-loading catalyst HLA-DM (DM), its associated modulator, HLA-DO (DO), is incompletely understood. This is due largely to technical limitations: model antigen-presenting cell (APC) systems that express these MHC-II peptidome regulators at physiologically variable levels have not been described. Likewise, computational prediction tools that account for DO and DM activities are not presently available. To address these gaps, we created a panel of single MHC-II allele, HLA-DR4-expressing APC lines that cover a wide range of DO:DM ratio states. Using a combined immunopeptidomic and proteomic discovery strategy, we measured the effects DO:DM ratios have on peptide presentation by surveying over 10,000 unique DR4-presented peptides. The resulting data provide insight into peptide characteristics that influence their presentation with increasing DO:DM ratios. These include DM sensitivity, peptide abundance, binding affinity and motif, peptide length, and choice of binding register along the source protein. These findings have implications for designing improved HLA-II prediction algorithms and research strategies for dissecting the variety of functions that different APCs serve in the body.