Lichti, Cheryl F., and Xiaoxiao Wan. “Using mass spectrometry to identify neoantigens in autoimmune diseases: The type 1 diabetes example.” Seminars in immunology. Vol. 66. Academic Press, 2023. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.smim.2023.101730
In autoimmune diseases, recognition of self-antigens presented by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules elicits unexpected attack of tissue by autoantibodies and/or autoreactive T cells. Post-translational modification (PTM) may alter the MHC-binding motif or TCR contact residues in a peptide antigen, transforming the tolerance to self to autoreactivity. Mass spectrometry-based immunopeptidomics provides a valuable mechanism for identifying MHC ligands that contain PTMs and can thus provide valuable insights into pathogenesis and therapeutics of autoimmune diseases. A plethora of PTMs have been implicated in this process, and this review highlights their formation and identification.