Vanuopadath, Muralidharan, et al. “Venomics and antivenomics of Indian spectacled cobra (Naja naja) from the Western Ghats.” Acta Tropica 228 (2022): 106324. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actatropica.2022.106324
Venom proteome profiling of Naja naja from the Western Ghats region in Kerala was achieved through SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC followed by Q-TOF LC-MS/MS analysis, incorporating PEAKS and Novor assisted de novo sequencing methodologies. A total of 115 proteins distributed across 17 different enzymatic and non-enzymatic venom protein families were identified through conventional and 39 peptides through homology-driven proteomics approaches. Fourteen peptides derived through de novo complements the Mascot data indicating the importance of homology-driven approaches in improving protein sequence information. Among the protein families identified, glutathione peroxidase and endonuclease were reported for the first time in the Indian cobra venom. Immunological cross-reactivity assessed using Indian polyvalent antivenoms suggested that VINS showed better EC50 (2.48 µg/mL) value than that of PSAV (6.04 µg/mL) and Virchow (6.03 µg/mL) antivenoms. Western blotting experiments indicated that all the antivenoms elicited poor binding specificities, especially towards low molecular mass proteins. Second-generation antivenomics studies revealed that VINS antivenom was less efficient to detect many low molecular mass proteins such as three-finger toxins and Kunitz-type serine protease Inhibitors. Taken together, the present study enabled a large-scale characterization of the venom proteome of Naja naja from the Western Ghats and emphasized the need for developing more efficient antivenoms.