Venomics and antivenomics of Indian spectacled cobra (Naja naja) from the Western Ghats

Vanuopadath, Muralidharan, et al. “Venomics and antivenomics of Indian spectacled cobra (Naja naja) from the Western Ghats.” Acta Tropica 228 (2022): 106324.


Venom proteome profiling of Naja naja from the Western Ghats region in Kerala was achieved through SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC followed by Q-TOF LC-MS/MS analysis, incorporating PEAKS and Novor assisted de novo sequencing methodologies. A total of 115 proteins distributed across 17 different enzymatic and non-enzymatic venom protein families were identified through conventional and 39 peptides through homology-driven proteomics approaches. Fourteen peptides derived through de novo complements the Mascot data indicating the importance of homology-driven approaches in improving protein sequence information. Among the protein families identified, glutathione peroxidase and endonuclease were reported for the first time in the Indian cobra venom. Immunological cross-reactivity assessed using Indian polyvalent antivenoms suggested that VINS showed better EC50 (2.48 µg/mL) value than that of PSAV (6.04 µg/mL) and Virchow (6.03 µg/mL) antivenoms. Western blotting experiments indicated that all the antivenoms elicited poor binding specificities, especially towards low molecular mass proteins. Second-generation antivenomics studies revealed that VINS antivenom was less efficient to detect many low molecular mass proteins such as three-finger toxins and Kunitz-type serine protease Inhibitors. Taken together, the present study enabled a large-scale characterization of the venom proteome of Naja naja from the Western Ghats and emphasized the need for developing more efficient antivenoms.