Schönemann, Alexandre M., Ricardo Beiras, and Angel P. Diz. “Widespread alterations upon exposure to the estrogenic endocrine disruptor ethinyl estradiol in the liver proteome of the marine male fish Cyprinodon variegatus.” Aquatic Toxicology 248 (2022): 106189. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2022.106189
Quantitative proteomic changes in the liver of adult males of Sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) upon exposure to ethinyl estradiol (EE2) were assessed to provide an advanced understanding of the metabolic pathways affected by estrogenic endocrine disruption in marine fish, and to identify potential novel molecular biomarkers for the environmental exposure to estrogens. From a total of 3188 identified protein groups (hereafter proteins), 463 showed a statistically significant difference in their abundance between EE2 treatment and solvent control samples. The most affected biological processes upon EE2 exposure were related to ribosomal biogenesis, protein synthesis and transport of nascent proteins to endoplasmic reticulum, and nuclear mRNA catabolism. Within the group of upregulated proteins, a subset of 14 proteins, involved in egg production (Vitellogenin, Zona Pellucida), peptidase activity (Cathepsine E, peptidase S1, Serine/threonine-protein kinase PRP4 homolog, Isoaspartyl peptidase and Whey acidic protein), and nucleic acid binding (Poly [ADP-ribose] polymerase 14) were significantly upregulated with fold-change values higher than 3. In contrast, Collagen alpha-2, involved in the process of response to steroid hormones, among others, was significantly downregulated (fold change = 0.2). This pattern of alterations in the liver proteome of adult males of C. variegatus can be used to identify promising novel biomarkers for the characterization of exposure of marine fish to estrogens. The Whey acidic protein-like showed the highest upregulation in EE2-exposed individuals (21-fold over controls), suggesting the utility of abundance levels of this protein in male liver as a novel biomarker of xenoestrogen exposure.