Poluektova, E. U., et al. “Comparative Genomic, Transcriptomic, and Proteomic Analysis of the Limosilactobacillus fermentum U-21 Strain Promising for the Creation of a Pharmabiotic.” Russian Journal of Genetics 58.9 (2022): 1079-1090. https://doi.org/10.1134/S1022795422090125
Currently, the world is undergoing revolutionary changes in the development and use of pharmacological preparations based on bacteria and their biologically active components. The development of pharmabiotics, live biotherapeutic preparations and/or their metabolites and components with established pharmacological ingredients and mechanism of the action and aimed at the treatment of specific nosologies, becomes the most promising. When creating pharmabiotics, in addition to traditional microbiological and biotechnological approaches, a complex of omics technologies, genomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic, is used. In the presented work, these technologies were used to characterize the Limosilactobacillus fermentum U-21 strain previously selected for a number of unique antioxidant properties. Genomic analysis of the strain allowed us to identify 29 genes the products of which can exhibit antioxidant properties, including those toward the body of the studied animals. Genes of the thioredoxin complex and metabolism and transport of heavy metals may be the most important. Hydrogen peroxide was used as an inducer of oxidative stress. An increase in expression of 380 genes and a more than twofold decrease in expression of 370 genes were demonstrated. Genes of a putative urea carboxylase operon showed the greatest increase in expression (by 14–24 times). Changes in expression of genes of transport, including Fe2+ and Cu2+ metal ions, as well as of the synthesis and catabolism of some amino acids, are important for subsequent studies. Proteomic analysis of the exoproteome of the strain revealed the ClpB chaperone complex protein, which can play a key role in refolding of proteins misfolded as a result of oxidative stress in various tissues and organs of the animal body. The use of a complex of omics technologies to characterize the therapeutic properties and mechanism of the action of the L. fermentum U-21 strain is one of the first examples in this field of research.