Wölk, Michele, et al. “Comprehensive Profiling of the Native and Modified Peptidomes of Raw Bovine Milk and Processed Milk Products.” Foods, no. 12, MDPI AG, Dec. 2020, p. 1841. Crossref, doi:10.3390/foods9121841.
Bovine milk contains a variety of endogenous peptides, partially formed by milk proteases that may exert diverse bioactive functions. Milk storage allows further protease activities altering the milk peptidome, while processing, e.g., heat treatment can trigger diverse chemical reactions, such as Maillard reactions and oxidations, leading to different posttranslational modifications (PTMs). The influence of processing on the native and modified peptidome was studied by analyzing peptides extracted from raw milk (RM), ultra-high temperature (UHT) milk, and powdered infant formula (IF) by nano reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled online to electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry. Only unmodified peptides proposed by two independent software tools were considered as identified. Thus, 801 identified peptides mainly originated from αS– and β-caseins, but also from milk fat globular membrane proteins, such as glycosylation-dependent cell adhesion molecule 1. RM and UHT milk showed comparable unmodified peptide profiles, whereas IF differed mainly due to a higher number of β-casein peptides. When 26 non-enzymatic posttranslational modifications (PTMs) were targeted in the milk peptidomes, 175 modified peptides were identified, i.e., mostly lactosylated and a few hexosylated or oxidized peptides. Most modified peptides originated from αS-caseins. The numbers of lactosylated peptides increased with harsher processing.