Yao, Lijun, et al. “Macrophage-Stimulating Activity of European Eel (Anguilla Anguilla) Peptides in RAW264.7 Cells Mediated via NF-ΚB and MAPK Signaling Pathways.” Food & Function, no. 12, Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC), 2020, pp. 10968–78. Crossref, doi:10.1039/d0fo02497j.
European eel (Anguilla anguilla) is considered to be a vital commercial fish species. In this study, the effect and molecular mechanism of bioactive peptides from European eel on macrophage-stimulating activity in RAW264.7 cells were investigated. Eel peptide (EP) markedly induced NO and iNOS production and promoted TNF-α and IL-6 secretion in a concentration-dependent manner. Moreover, EP dose-dependently activated NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways in RAW264.7 cells. In addition, EP was purified using a Sephadex A-25 column and a Bio-Gel P-6 column, and the fraction (Fr-1-1) showing the strongest NO-inducing activity was obtained. Then, the molecular weights of the components in Fr-1-1 were analyzed by LC-MS/MS and found to range from 700 to 1900 Da for the majority of components, which suggested that Fr-1-1 mainly consisted of peptides containing 8–20 amino acid residues. Overall, our results indicated that EP from Anguilla anguilla activated macrophages and could be used as a potential nutraceutical or pharmaceutical.