Proteomic profiling and identification of significant markers from high-grade osteosarcoma after cryotherapy and irradiation


Biological reconstruction of allografts and recycled autografts have been widely implemented in high-grade osteogenic sarcoma. For treating tumor-bearing autografts, extracorporeal irradiation (ECIR) and liquid nitrogen (LN) freezing techniques are being used worldwide as a gold standard treatment procedure. Both the methods aim to eradicate the tumor cells from the local recurrence and restore the limb function. Therefore, it is essential and crucial to find, and compare the alterations at molecular and physiological levels of the treated and untreated OGS recycled autografts to obtain valuable clinical information for better clinical practice. Thus, we aimed to investigate the significantly expressed altered proteins from ECIR-and cryotherapy/freezing- treated OGS (n = 12) were compared to untreated OGS (n = 12) samples using LC-ESI-MS/MS analysis, and the selected proteins from this protein panel were verified using immunoblot analysis. From our comparative proteomic analysis identified a total of 131 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) from OGS. Among these, 91 proteins were up-regulated (2.5 to 3.5-folds), and 40 proteins were down-regulated (0.2 to 0.5 folds) (p < 0.01 and 0.05). The functional enrichment analysis revealed that the identified DEPs have belonged to more than 10 different protein categories include cytoskeletal, extracellular matrix, immune, enzyme modulators, and cell signaling molecules. Among these, we have confirmed two potential candidates’ expressions levels such as Fibronectin and Protein S100 A4 using western blot analysis. Our proteomic study revealed that LN-freezing and ECIR treatments are effectively eradicating tumor cells, and reducing the higher expressions of DEPs at molecular levels which may help in restoring the limb functions of OGS autografts effectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first proteomic study that compared proteomic profiles among freezing, ECIR treated with untreated OGS in recycled autografts. Moreover, the verified proteins could be used as prognostic or diagnostic markers that reveal valuable scientific information which may open various therapeutic avenues in clinical practice to improve patient outcomes.