Synthetic analogues of 2-oxo acids discriminate metabolic contribution of the 2-oxoglutarate and 2-oxoadipate dehydrogenases in mammalian cells and tissues


The biological significance of the DHTKD1-encoded 2-oxoadipate dehydrogenase (OADH) remains obscure due to its catalytic redundancy with the ubiquitous OGDH-encoded 2-oxoglutarate dehydrogenase (OGDH). In this work, metabolic contributions of OADH and OGDH are discriminated by exposure of cells/tissues with different DHTKD1 expression to the synthesized phosphonate analogues of homologous 2-oxodicarboxylates. The saccharopine pathway intermediates and phosphorylated sugars are abundant when cellular expressions of DHTKD1 and OGDH are comparable, while nicotinate and non-phosphorylated sugars are when DHTKD1 expression is order(s) of magnitude lower than that of OGDH. Using succinyl, glutaryl and adipoyl phosphonates on the enzyme preparations from tissues with varied DHTKD1 expression reveals the contributions of OADH and OGDH to oxidation of 2-oxoadipate and 2-oxoglutarate in vitro. In the phosphonates-treated cells with the high and low DHTKD1 expression, adipate or glutarate, correspondingly, are the most affected metabolites. The marker of fatty acid β-oxidation, adipate, is mostly decreased by the shorter, OGDH-preferring, phosphonate, in agreement with the known OGDH dependence of β-oxidation. The longest, OADH-preferring, phosphonate mostly affects the glutarate level. Coupled decreases in sugars and nicotinate upon the OADH inhibition link the perturbation in glucose homeostasis, known in OADH mutants, to the nicotinate-dependent NAD metabolism.