Roldán Gonzáles, William Henry, et al. “Proteomic analysis of the excretory-secretory products from Strongyloides venezuelensis infective larvae: new insights for the immunodiagnosis of human strongyloidiasis.” Parasitology Research 121.11 (2022): 3155-3170. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00436-022-07636-y
Serodiagnosis of human strongyloidiasis is a practical alternative to parasitological methods due to its high sensitivity. However, cross-reactivity with other helminth infections limits its utility, and this problem is due to the use of homologous or heterologous somatic extracts of the parasite as an antigen source. Excretory-secretory (E/S) products from Strongyloides infective larvae can be used to improve the serodiagnosis. The combined use of western blot and proteomics became an interesting strategy to identify immunological markers for the serodiagnosis of strongyloidiasis. The present study describes the proteomic analysis of the antigenic components from E/S products of S. venezuelensis infective larvae that were recognized by IgG antibodies from patients with strongyloidiasis. Our results showed that IgG antibodies from patients with strongyloidiasis recognized between 15 and 16 antigenic bands in the E/S products from S. venezuelensis that were incubated in PBS or in RPMI culture medium, respectively. Overall, antigenic bands of low and high molecular weight were more specific than those of intermediate molecular weight, which were cross-reactive. A 36-kDa antigenic band was 93% sensitive and 100% specific (a probably arginine kinase of 37 kDa), while other antigenic bands were highly sensitive but low specific. Proteomic analysis revealed differences between the protein profiles from E/S-RPMI and E/S-PBS since only one-third of all proteins identified were common in both types of E/S products. Bioinformatic analysis showed that more than 50% of the proteins from E/S products are secreted within extracellular vesicles and only a small percentage of them are actually released by the classical secretory pathway. Several components from the E/S products were identified as plasminogen-binding proteins, probably used as an immune evasion mechanism. The data provided here provide valuable information to increase understanding of E/S products from S. venezuelensis infective larvae. This may help us to find new targets for the immunodiagnosis of human strongyloidiasis.